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H2O.

Suppose we reverse the process and synthesize steam, which can be
done by passing an electric spark through a mixture of H and O in
a eudiometer over mercury; we should need to take twice as much H
as O. Now when 2 cc. of H combine thus with 1 cc. of O, only 2
cc.of steam are produced. Three volumes are condensed into two
volumes, and of course three molecular volumes into two, three
atomic volumes into two. This may be written as follows:--

H + H + O = H2O.

This is a condensation of one-third.

If 2 l. of chlorhydric acid gas be analyzed, there will result 1
l. of H and 1 l. of Cl. The same relation exists between the
molecules and the atoms, and the reaction is:--

HCl = H + Cl.

Reverse the process, and 1 l. of H unites with 1 l. of Cl to
produce 2 l. of the acid gas; there is no condensation, and the
symbol is HCl. In seven volumes HCl how many of each constituent?

The combination of two volumes of H with one volume of S is found
to produce two volumes of hydrogen sulphide. Therefore two atoms
of H combine with one of S to form a molecule whose symbol is
H2S.

H + H + S = H2S.

What is the condensation in this case?

PROBLEMS.

(1) How many liters of S will it take to unite with 4 l. of H?
How much H2S will be formed?

(2) How many liters of H will it take to combine with 5 l. of S?
How much H2S results?

(3) In 6 l. H2S how many liters H, and how much S? Prove.

(4) In four volumes H2S how many volumes of each constituent?

(5) If three volumes of H be mixed with two volumes of S, so as
to make H2S, how much will be formed? How much of either element
will be left? An analysis of 2 cc. of ammonia gives 1 cc. N and 3
cc. H. The symbol must then be NH3, the reaction,--

NH3 = N + H + H + H.

What condensation in the synthesis of NH3?

In 12 cc. NH3 how many cubic centimeters of each element? In 2
1/2 cc? How much H by volume is required to combine with nine
volumes of N? How many volumes of NH3 are produced?

In elements that have not been weighed in the gaseous state, as
C, the evidence of atomic volume is not direct, but we will
assume it. Thus two volumes of marsh gas would separate into one
of C and four of H. What is its symbol and supposed condensation?
Two volumes of alcohol vapor resolve into two of C, six of H, and
one of O. What is its symbol? its condensation?

The symbol itself of a compound will usually show what its
condensation is; e.g. HCl, HBr, HF, etc., have two atoms; hence
there will be no shrinkage. In H2O, SO2, CO2, the molecule has
three atoms condensed into the space of two, or one-third
shrinkage. In NH3 four volumes are crowded into the space of two,
a condensation of one-half.

P, As, Hg, Zn, have exceptional atomic volumes.

Chapter XV.

ACIDS AND BASES.

66. What Acids Are.

Experiment 39.--Pour a few drops of chlorhydric acid, HCl, into a
clean evaporating-dish. Add 5 cc. H2O, and stir. Touch a drop to
the tongue, noting the taste. Dip into it the end of a piece of
blue litmus paper, and record the result. Thoroughly wash the
dish, then pour in a few drops of nitric acid, HNO3, and 5 cc.
H2O, and stir. Taste, and test with blue litmus. Test in the same
way sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Name two characteristics of an acid.
In a vertical line write the formulae of the acids above. What
element is common to them all? Is the rest of the formula
positive or negative?

67. An Acid is a substance composed of H and a negative element
or radical. It has usually a sour taste, and turns blue litmus
red. Litmus is a vegetable extract obtained from lichens in
Southern Europe. Acids have the same action on many other
vegetable pigments. Are the following acid formulae, and why?
H2SO3, HBr, HNO2, H3PO3, H4SiO4. Most acids have O as well as H.
Complete the symbols for acids in the following list, and name
them, from the type given:--

HCl, chlorhydric acid.	   HN03, nitric acid.
?Br,	     ?	           ?Cl?	      ?
?I,          ?	           ?Br?	      ?
?F,          ?             ?I?        ?
H3PO4, phosphoric acid.	   H3PO3, phosphorous acid.
?As?	     ?             ?As?	      ?

Complete these equations:--

H2SO3 - H2O = ?       |       2 HN03 - H2O = ?
H2SO4 - H2O = ?       |       2 HNO2 - H2O = ?
H2CO3 - H2O = ?       |       2 H3AsO4 - 3 H2O = ?

Are the products in each case metallic or non-metallic oxides?
They are called anhydrides. Notice that each is formed by the
withdrawal of water from an acid. Reverse the equations; as, SO3
+ H2O = ?

68. An Anhydride is what remains after water has been removed
from an acid; or, it is the oxide of a non- metallic element,
which, united with water, forms an acid. SO2 is sulphurous
anhydride, SO2 sulphuric anhydride, the ending ic meaning more O,
or negative element, than ous. Name the others above.

Anhydrides were formerly called acids,--anhydrous acids, in
distinction from hydrated ones, as CO2 even now is often called
carbonic acid.

Experiment 40.--Hold a piece of wet blue litmus paper in the
fumes of SO2, and note the acid test. Try the same with dry
litmus paper.

Experiment 41.--Burn a little S in a receiver of air containing
10 cc. H2O, and loosely covered, as in the O experiment. Then
shake to dissolve the SO2. H2O + SO2 = H2SO3. Apply test paper.

69. Naming Acids.--Compare formulae H2SO3 and H2SO4. Of two acids
having the same elements, the name of the one with least O, or
negative element, ends in ous, the other in ic. H2SO3 is
sulphurous acid, H2SO4, sulphuric acid. Name H3PO4 and H3PO3;
H3AsO3 and H3ASO4; HNO2 and HNO3.

If there are more than two acids in a series, the prefixes hypo,
less, and per, more, are used. The following is such a series:
HClO, HClO2, HClO3, HClO4.

HClO3 is chloric acid; HClO2, chlorous; HClO, hypochlorous; HClO4
perchloric. Hypo means less of the negative element than ous; per
means more of the negative element than ic. Name: H3PO4 (ic),
H3PO3, H3PO2. Also HBrO (HBrO2 does not exist), HBrO3 (ic),
HBrO4.

What are the three most negative elements? Note their occurrence
in the three strongest and most common acids. Hereafter note the
names and symbols of all the acids you see.

70. What Bases Are.

Experiment 42.--Put a few drops of NH4OH into an evaporating-
dish. Add 5 cc. H2O, and stir. Taste a drop. Dip into it a piece
of red litmus paper, noting the effect. Cleanse the dish, and
treat in the same way a few drops NaOH solution, recording the
result. Do the same with KOH. Acid stains on the clothing, with
the exception of those made by HNO3, maybe removed by NH4OH.
H2SO4, however, rapidly destroys the fiber of the cloth.

Name two characteristics of a base. In the formulae of those
bases, what two common elements? Name the radical. Compare those
symbols with the symbol for water, HOH. Is (OH) positive or
negative? Is the other part of each formula positive or negative?
What are two constituents, then, of a base? Bases are called
hydrates. Write in a vertical line five positive elements. Note
the valence of each, and complete the formula for its base. Affix
the names. Can you see any reason why the three bases above given
are the strongest?

Taking the valences of Cr and Fe, write symbols for two sets of
hydrates, and name them. Try to recognize and name every base
hereafter met with.

A Base is a substance which is composed of a metal, or positive
radical, and OH. It generally turns red litmus blue, and often
has an acrid taste.

An Alkali is a base which is readily soluble in water. The three
principal alkalies are NH4OH, KOH, and NaOH.

Alkali Metals are those which form alkalies. Name three.

An Alkaline Reaction is the turning of red litmus blue.

An Acid Reaction is the turning of blue litmus red.

Experiment 43.--Pour 5 cc. of a solution of litmus in water, into
a clean t.t. or small beaker. Pour 2 or 3 cc. of HCl into an
evaporating-dish, and the same quantity of NH4OH into another
dish. Take a drop of the HCl on a stirring-rod and stir the
litmus solution with it. Note the acid reaction. Clean the rod,
and with it take a drop (or more if necessary) of NH4OH, and add
this to the red litmus solution, noting the alkaline reaction.
Experiment in the same way with the two other principal acids and
the two other alkalies.

Litmus paper is commonly used to test these reactions, and
hereafter whenever the term LITMUS is employed in that sense, the
test-paper should be understood. This paper can be prepared by
dipping unglazed paper into a strong aqueous solution of
litmus.

CHAPTER XVI.

SALTS.

71. Acids and Bases are usually Opposite in Character.--When two
forces act in opposition they tend to neutralize each other. We
may see an analogy to this in the union of the two opposite
classes of compounds, acids and bases, to form salts.

72. Neutralization.

Experiment 44.--Put into an evaporating-dish 5 cc. of NaOH
solution. Add HCl to this from a t.t., a few drops at a time,
stirring the mixture with a glass rod (Fig. 20), and testing it
with litmus paper, until the liquid is neutral, i.e. will not
turn the test paper from blue to red, or red to blue. Test with
both colors. If it turns blue to red, too much acid has been
added; if red to blue, too much base. When it is very nearly
neutral, add the reagent, HCl or NaOH, a drop at a time with the
stirring-rod. It must be absolutely neutral to both colors.
Evaporate the water by heating the dish over asbestus paper, wire
gauze, or sand, in an iron plate (Fig. 21) till the residue
becomes dry and white. Cool the residue, taste, and name it. The
equation is: HCl + NaOH = NaCl + HOH or H2O. Note which elements,
positive or negative, change places. Why was the liquid boiled?
The residue is a type of a large class of compounds, called
salts.

(Fig. 20)                           (Fig. 21)

Experiment 45. -- Experiment in the same way with KOH solution
and H2SO4, applying the same tests. H2SO4 + 2 KOH = K2SO4 + 2
HOH. What is the solid product?

Experiment 46.--Neutralize NH4OH with HNO3, evaporate, apply the
tests, and write the equation. Write equations for the
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