List Of Contents | Contents of An Introduction to Chemical Science
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cc. HCl. Apply heat carefully, and collect the gas by downward
displacement in a receiver loosely covered with paper (Fig. 39).
Add more HCl if needed. Have a good draft of air, and do not
inhale the gas. If you have accidentally breathed it, inhale
alcohol vapor from a handkerchief; alcohol has great affinity for
Cl. Note the color of the gas, and compare its weight with that
of air.

MnO2 + 4 HCl = MnCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 Cl. How much Cl can be separated
with 5 g. MnO2?

If preferred, a flask may be used for a generator instead of a
t.t. Cl can be obtained directly from NaCl by adding H2SO4 (which
produces HCl) and MnO2. 2 NaCl + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2 = MnSO4 + Na2SO4
+ 2 H2O + 2 Cl. Try the experiment, using a t.t. and adding

151. Cl from Bleaching-Powder.

Experiment 88.--Put a few grams of bleaching- powder into a small
beaker, and set this into a larger one. Cover the latter with
pasteboard or paper, through which passes a thistle-tube reaching
into the small beaker (Fig. 40). Pour through the tube a little
H2SO4 dilated with its volume of H2O.

152. Chlorine Water.--A solution of Cl in water is often useful,
and may be made as follows:-- Experiment 89.--To 3 or 4 crystals
of KClO3 add a few drops of HCl. Heat a minute, and when the gas
begins to disengage, pour in 10 cc. H2O, which dissolves the gas.
2 KClO3 + 4 HCl = 2 KCl + Cl2O4 + 2 H2O + 2 Cl.

153. Bleaching Properties.

Experiment 90.--Put into a receiver of Cl, preferably before
generating it, two pieces of Turkey red cloth, one wet, the other
dry; a small piece of printed paper and a written one; also a red
rose or a green leaf, each wet. Note from which the color is
discharged. If it is not discharged from all, put a little H2O
into the receiver, shake it well, and state what ones are

Experiment 91.--(1) Add 5 cc. of Cl water to 5 cc. of indigo
solution. (2) Treat in the same way 5 cc. K2Cr2O7 (potassium
dichromate) solution, and record the results.

Indigo, writing-ink, and Turkey red or madder, are vegetable
pigments; printer's ink contains C, and K2Cr2O7 is a mineral
pigment. State what coloring matters Cl will bleach.

154. Disinfecting Power.

Experiment 92.--Pass a little H2S gas from a generator into a
t.t. containing Cl water. Look for a deposit of S. Notice that
the odor of H2S disappears. H2S + 2 Cl = 2 HCl + S.

155. A Supporter of Combustion.

Experiment 93.--Sprinkle into a receiver of Cl a very little fine
powder or filings of Cu, As, or Sb, and notice the combustion.
Observe that here is a case of combustion in which O does not
take part. Chlorides of the metals are of course formed. Write
the reactions. See whether Cl will support the combustion of
paper or of a stick of wood.

Experiment 94.--Warm 2 or 3 cc. of oil of turpentine (C1OH16) in
an evaporating-dish; dip a piece of tissue paper into it, and
very quickly thrust this into a receiver of Cl. It should take
fire and deposit carbon. C1OH16 + 16 Cl = ? Test the moisture on
the sides of the receiver with litmus. Clean the receiver with a
little petroleum.

Experiment 95.--Prepare a H generator with a lamp-tube bent as in
Figure 41. Light the H, observing the cautions in Experiment 23,
and when well burning, lower the flame into a receiver of Cl.
Observe the change of color which the flame undergoes as it comes
in contact with Cl. Give the reaction for the burning. Test with
litmus any moisture on the sides of the receiver. A mixture of Cl
and H, in direct sunlight combines with explosive violence;
whereas in diffused sunlight it combines slowly, and in darkness
it does not combine. From these experiments state the chief
properties of Cl, and what combustion it will support.

[Figure 41.]

156. Sources and Uses.--The great source of Cl is NaCl, though it
is often made from HCl. Its chief use is in making bleaching-
powder, one pound of which will bleach 300 to 500 pounds of
cloth. Cl is very easily liberated from this powder by a dilute
acid, or, slowly, by taking moisture from the air. Hence its use
as a disinfectant in destroying noxious gases and the germs of
infectious diseases. Cl attacks organic matter and germs as it
does the membrane of the throat or lungs, owing to its affinity
for H.

Cl is the best bleaching agent for cotton goods. It is not
suitable for animal materials, such as silk and wool, as it
attacks their fiber. It does not discharge either mineral or
carbon colors. The chemistry of bleaching is obscure.

As dry material will not bleach, Cl seems to unite with H in H2O
and to set O free. The O then unites with some portion of the
coloring matter, oxidizing it, and breaking up its molecule.
Colors bleached by Cl cannot be restored.

Chapter XXXI.


Examine bromine, potassium bromide, sodium bromide, magnesium

157. Preparation.

Experiment 96.--Pulverize 2 or 3 g. KBr, and mix it with about
the same bulk of MnO2. After putting this into a t.t, add as much
H2SO4, mix them together by shaking, attach a d.t., and conduct
the end of it into a t.t. that is immersed in a bottle of cold
water. Slowly heat the contents of the t.t., and notice the color
of the escaping vapor, and any liquid that condenses in the
receiver. Avoid inhaling the fumes, or getting them into the

MnO2 + 2 KBr + 2 H2SO4 = ? Compare this with the equation for
making Cl from NaCl.

158. Tests.

Experiment 97.--Try the bleaching action of Br vapor as in the
case of Cl. Bleach a piece of litmus paper, and try to restore
the color with NH4OH. Explain its bleaching and disinfecting
action. Try the combustibility of As, Sb, and Cu.

159. Description.--Bromine at usual temperatures is a liquid
element; it is the only common one except Hg; it. quickly
evaporates on exposure to air. The chemistry of its manufacture
is like that of Cl; its bleaching and disinfecting powers are
similar to the latter, though they are not quite so strong as
those of Cl. Its affinity for H and for metals is also strongly
marked. A drop of Br on the skin produces a sore slow to heal.
Bromine salts are mainly KBr, NaBr, MgBr2. These in small
quantities accompany NaCl, and are most common in brine springs.
The world's supply of Br comes chiefly from West Virginia and
Ohio, over 300,000 pounds being produced from the salt (NaCl)
wells there in 1884. The water taken from these wells is nearly
evaporated, after which NaCl crystallizes out, leaving a thick
liquid--bittern, or mother liquor--which contains the salts of
Br. The bittern is treated with H2SO4 and Mn02, as above.

For transportation in large quantities, Br has to be made into
the salts NaBr and KBr, on account of the danger attending
leakage or breakage of the receptacles for Br.

160. Uses.--Its chief uses are in photography (page 167),
medicine, as KBr, and analytical chemistry.

Chapter XXXII.


Examine iodine, potassium iodide.

161. Preparation of I.

Experiment 98.--Put into a t.t. 2 or 3 g. of powdered KI mixed
with an equal bulk of MnO2, add H2SO4 enough to cover well, shake
together, complete the apparatus as for making Br, and heat.
Notice the color of the vapor, and any sublimate. The direct
product of the solidification of a vapor is called a sublimate.
The process is sublimation. Observe any crystals formed. Write
the reaction, and compare the process with that for making Br and
Cl. Compare the vapor density of I with that of Br and of Cl.
With that of air. What vapor is heavier than I? What acid and
what base are represented by KI?

162. Tests.

Experiment 99.--(1) Put a crystal of I in the palm of the hand
and watch it for a minute. (2) Put 2 or 3 crystals into a t.t.,
and warm it, meanwhile holding a stirring-rod half-way down the
tube. Notice the vapor, also a sublimate on the sides of the t.t.
and rod. (3) Add to 2 or 3 crystals in a t.t. 5 cc. of alcohol,
C2H5OH; warm it, and see whether a solution is formed. If so, add
5 cc. H2O and look for a ppt. of I. Does this show that I is not
at all soluble in H2O, or not so soluble as in alcohol?

163. Starch Solution and Iodine Test.

Experiment 100.--Pulverize a gram or two of starch, put it into
an evaporating-dish, add 4 or 5 drops of water, and mix; then
heat to the boiling-point 10 cc. H2O in a t.t., and pour it over
the starch, stirring it meanwhile.

(1) Dip into this starch paste a piece of paper, hold it in the
vapor of I, and look for a change of color. (2) Pour a drop of
the starch paste into a clean t.t., and add a drop or two of the
solution of I in alcohol. Add 5 cc. H2O, note the color, then
boil, and finally cool. (3) The presence of starch in a potato or
apple can be shown by putting a drop of I solution in alcohol on
a slice of either, and observing the color. (4) Try to dissolve a
few crystals of I in 5 cc. H2O by boiling. If it does not
disappear, see whether any has dissolved, by touching a drop of
the water to starch paste. This should show that I is slightly
soluble in water.

164. Iodo-Starch Paper.

Experiment 101.--Add to some starch paste that contains no I 5
cc. of a solution of KI, and stir the mixture. Why is it not
colored blue? Dip into this several strips of paper, dry them,
and save for use. This paper is called iodo-starch paper, and is
used as a test for ozone, chlorine, etc. Bring a piece of it in
contact with the vapor of chlorine, bromine, or ozone, and notice
the blue color.

Experiment 102.--Add a few drops of chlorine water to 2cc. of the
starch and KI solution in 10 cc. H2O. This should show the same
effect as the previous experiment.

165. Explanation.--Only free I, not compounds of it, will color
starch blue. It must first be set free from KI. Ozone, chlorine,
etc., have a strong affinity for K, and when brought in contact
with KI they unite with K and set free I, which then acts on the
starch present. Com- plete the equation: KI + Cl = ?

166. Occurrence.--The ultimate source of I is sea water, of which
it constitutes far too small a percentage to be separated
artificially. Sea-weeds, or algae, especially those growing in
the deep sea, absorb its salts--NaI, KI, etc.--from the water. It

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