List Of Contents | Contents of An Introduction to Chemical Science
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into material for the sustenance of the latter, while animals
prepare food for plants. All the C in plants is supposed to come
from the CO2 in the atmosphere. Animals obtain their supply from
plants. The utility of the small percentage of CO2 in the air is
thus seen.

126. Uses.--CO2 is used in making "soda-water," and in chemical
engines to put out fires in their early stages. In either case it
may be prepared by treating Na2CO3 or CaCO3 with H2SO4. Give the
reactions. On a small scale CO2 is made from HNaCO3. CO2 has a
very weak affinity for water, but probably forms with it H2CO3.
Much carbon dioxide can be forced into water under pressure. This
forms soda-water, which really contains no soda. The
justification for the name is the material from which it is
sometimes made. Salts from H2CO3, called carbonates, are
numerous, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 being the most important.

Chapter XXVI.


127. Preparation.

Experiment 78.--Scrape off the oxide from the surface of a piece
of phosphorus 2 cm long, put it into a wide-mouthed bottle, half
cover the P with water, cover the bottle with a glass, and leave
it for half an hour or more.

128. Tests.

Experiment 79.--Remove the glass cover, smell the gas, and hold
in it some wet iodo-starch paper. Look for any blue color. Iodine
has been set free, according to the reaction, 2 KI + 03= K20 + O2
+ I2, and has imparted a blue color to the starch, and ordinary
oxygen has been formed. Why will not oxygen set iodine free from
KI?. What besides ozone will liberate it?

129. Ozone, oxidized oxygen, active oxygen, etc., is an
allotropic form of O. Its molecule is 03, while that of ordinary
oxygen is 02.

Three atoms of oxygen are condensed into the space of two atoms
of ozone, or three molecules of O are condensed into two
molecules of ozone, or three liters of O are condensed into two
liters of ozone. Ozone is thus formed by oxidizing ordinary
oxygen. 02 + O = 03. This takes place during thunder storms and
in artificial electrical discharges. The quantity of ozone
produced is small, five per cent being the maximum, and the usual
quantity is far less than that.

Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, and will change S, P, and As
into their ic acids. Cotton cloth was formerly bleached, and
linen is now bleached, by spreading it on the grass and leaving
it for weeks to be acted on by ozone, which is usually present in
the air in small quantities, especially in the country. Ozone is
a disinfectant, like other bleaching agents, and serves to clear
the air of noxious gases and germs of infectious diseases. So
much ozone is reduced in this way that the air of cities contains
less of it than country air. A third is consumed in uniting with
the substance which it oxidizes, while two-thirds are changed
into oxygen, as in Experiment 79.

It is unhealthful to breathe much ozone, but a little in the air
is desirable for disinfection.

Ozone will cause the inert N of the air to unite with H, to form
ammonia. No other agent capable of doing this is known, so that
all the NH3 in the air, in fact all ammonium compounds taken up
by plants from soils and fertilizers, may have been made
originally through the agency of ozone. At a low temperature
ozone has been liquefied. It is then distinctly blue.

Electrolysis of water is the best mode of preparing this
substance in quantity. When prepared from P it is mixed with

Chapter XXVII.


130. Constituents.--The four chief constituents of the atmosphere
are N, O, H2O, CO2, in the order of their abundance. What
experiments show the presence of N, O, and CO2 in the air? Set a
pitcher of ice water in a warm room, and the moisture that
collects on the outside is deposited from the air. This shows the
presence of H2O. Rain, clouds, fog, and dew prove the same. H2SO4
and CaCl2, on exposure to air, take up water. Experiment 18 shows
that there is not far from four times as much N as O by volume in
air. Hence if the atmosphere were a compound of N and O, and the
proportion of four to one were exact, its symbol would be N4O.

131. Air not a Compound.--The following facts show that air is
not a compound, but rather a mixture of these gases.

1. The proportion of N and O in the air, though it does not vary
much, is not always exactly the same. This could not be true if
it were a compound. Why?

2. If N4O were dissolved in water, the N would be four times the
O in volume; but when air is dissolved, less than twice as much N
as O is taken up.

3. No heat or condensation takes place when four measures of N
are brought in contact with one of O. It cannot then be N4O, for
the vapor density of N4O would be 36--i.e. (14 x 4 + 16) / 2; but
that of air is 14 1/2 nearly --i.e. (14 x 4 + 16) / 5. Analysis
shows about 79 parts of N to 21 parts of O by volume in air.

132. Water.--The volume of H2O, watery vapor, in the atmosphere
is very variable. Warm air will hold more than cold, and at any
temperature air may be near saturation, i.e. having all it will
hold at that temperature, or it may have little. But some is
always present; though the hot desert winds of North Africa are
not more than 1/15 saturated. A cubic meter of air at 25 degrees,
when saturated, contains more than 22 g. of water.

133. Carbon Dioxide.--Carbon dioxide does not make up more than
three or four parts in ten thousand of the air; but, in the whole
of the atmosphere, this gives a very large aggregate. Why does
not CO2 form a layer below the O and N?

134. Other Ingredients.--Other substances are found in the air in
minute portions, e.g. NH3 constitutes nearly one-millionth. Air
is also impregnated with living and dead germs, dust particles,
unburned carbon, etc., but these for the most part are confined
to the portion near the earth's surface. In pestilential regions
the germs of disease are said sometimes to contaminate the air
for miles around.

Chapter XXVIII.


135. Pure Water.--Review the experiments for electrolysis, and
for burning H. Pure water is obtained by distillation.

Experiment 80.--Provide a glass tube 40 or 50 cm long and 3 or 4
cm in diameter. Fit to each end a cork with two perforations,
through one of which a long tube passes the entire length of the
larger tube (Fig. 32a). Connect one end of this with a flask of
water arranged for heating; pass the other end into an open
receptacle for collecting the distilled water. Into the other
perforations lead short tubes,-- the one for water to flow into
the large tube from a jet; the other, for the same to flow out.
This condenses the steam by circulating cold water around it. The
apparatus is called a Liebig's condenser. Put water into the
flask, boil it, and notice the condensed liquid. It is
comparatively pure water; for most of the substances in solution
have a higher boiling-point than water, and are left behind when
it is vaporized.

(Fig. 32a.)

136. Test.

Experiment 81.--Test the purity of distilled water by slowly
evaporating a few drops on Pt foil in a room free from dust.
There should be no spot or residue left on the foil. Test in the
same way undistilled water. 137. Water exists in Three States,--
solid, liquid, and vaporous. It freezes at 0 degrees, suddenly
expanding considerably as it passes into the solid state. It
boils, i.e. overcomes atmospheric pressure and is vaporized, at
100 degrees (760 mm pressure). If the pressure is greater, the
boiling-point is raised, i.e. it takes a higher temperature to
overcome a greater pressure. If there be less pressure, as on a
mountain, the boiling-point is lowered below 100 degrees. Salts
dissolved in water raise its boiling-point, and lower its
freezing-point to an extent depending on the kind and quantity of
the salt. Water, however, evaporates at all temperatures, even
from ice.

Pure water has no taste or smell, and, in small quantities, no
color. It is rarely if ever found on the earth. What is taken up
by the air in evaporation is nearly pure; but when it falls as
rain or snow, impurities are absorbed from the atmosphere. Water
falling after a long rain, especially in the country, is
tolerably free from impurities. Some springs have also nearly
pure water; but to separate all foreign matter from it, water
must be distilled. Even then it is liable to contain traces of
ammonia, or some other substance which vaporizes at a lower
temperature than water.

138. Sea-Water.--The ocean is the ultimate source of all water.
From it and from lakes, rivers, and soils, water is taken into
the atmosphere, falls as rain or snow, and sinks into the ground,
reappearing in springs, or flowing off in brooks and rivers to
the ocean or inland seas. Ocean water must naturally contain
soluble salts; and many salts which are not soluble in pure water
are dissolved in sea-water. In fact, there is a probability that
all elements exist to some extent in sea-water, but many of them
in extremely minute quantities. Sodium and magnesium salts are
the two most abundant, and the bitter taste is due to MgSO4 and
MgCl2. A liter of sea- water, nearly 1000 g., holds over 37 g. of
various salts, 29 of which are NaCl. See Hard Water.

139. River Water.--River water holds fewer salts, but has a great
deal of organic matter, living and dead, derived from the regions
through which it flows. To render this harmless for drinking,
such water should be boiled, or filtered through unglazed
porcelain. Carbon filters are now thought to possess but little
virtue for separating harmful germs.

140. Spring Water.--The water of springs varies as widely in
composition as do the rocks whence it bubbles forth. Sulphur
springs contain much H2S; many geysers hold SiO2 in solution;
chalybeate waters have compounds of Fe; others have Na2SO4, MgSO4
NaCl, etc.



141. Candle Flame.

Experiment 82.--Examine a candle flame, holding a dark object
behind it. Note three distinct portions: (1) a colorless interior
about the wick, (2) a yellow light-giving portion beyond that,

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