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List Of Contents | Contents of The Duchess Of Berry-Charles X
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Duke of Bourbon. But this Prince had led a bad life with his wife,
from whom he had separated immediately after the birth of the Duke
d'Enghien, and the souvenirs of the Revolution separated him
widely from a family whose political ideas were not his. Yet the
Duke and Duchess of Orleans were not discouraged. They entered on
negotiations a long time in advance with the Baroness of
Feucheres, who was in reality the arbiter of the situation. M.
Nettement relates that the first time that Marie-Amelie
pronounced the name of the Baroness in the presence of the Duchess
of Angouleme, the daughter of Louis XVI. said to her: "What! you
have seen that woman!" The Duchess of Orleans responded: "What
would you have? I am a mother. I have a numerous family; I must
think before all of the interests of my children."

What is certain is that the Prince was induced to be the godfather
of the Duke d'Aumale, born the 6th of January, 1822, and that was
a sort of prelude to the will of 1830.





X

THE COURT


Now let us throw a general glance over the court of the King,
Charles X., in 1825, the year of the consecration.

The civil household of the King comprised six distinct services:
those of Grand Almoner of France, of the Grand Master of France,
of the Grand Chamberlain of France, of the Grand Equerry of
France, of the Grand Huntsman of France, and of the Grand Master
of Ceremonies of France.

The Grand Almoner was the Cardinal, Prince of Croy, Archbishop of
Rowen; the First Almoner, Mgr. Frayssinous, Bishop of Hermopolis;
the confessor of the King, the Abbe Jocard. Charles X., this
monarch, surrounded by great lords, knelt before a plebeian priest
and demanded absolution for his sins. There were, besides, in the
service of the Grand Almoner of France, eight almoners, eight
chaplains, and eight pupils of the chapel, serving in turns of
four.

The function of the Grand Master of France had as titulary the
Duke of Bourbon, Prince of Conde. But this Prince performed his
duties only in very rare and solemn circumstances. In fact, the
service of the Grand Master of France was directed by the First
Steward, the Count of Cosse-Brissac. There were besides four
chamberlains of the House, the Count de Rothe, the Marquis of
Mondragon, the Count Mesnard de Chousy, the Viscount Hocquart, and
several stewards.

The Grand Chamberlain of France was the Prince de Talleyrand. He
discharged his functions only on solemn occasions, such as the
funeral of Louis XVIII. and the consecration of Charles X. and the
arrival of the Duchess of Berry. In fact, the service of the Grand
Chamberlain of France was directed by one of the first gentlemen
of the chamber. They were four in number,--the Duke d'Aumont, the
Duke of Duras, the Duke of Blacas, the Duke Charles de Damas,--and
performed their functions in turn a year each. Every four years
the King designated those who were to serve during each of the
following four years. Thus, the Royal Almanac of 1825 has this
notice:--

First gentlemen of the chamber: 1825, the Duke d'Aumont; 1826, the
Duke of Duras; 1827, the Duke of Blacas; 1828, Count de Damas
(afterwards Duke).

The first chamberlains, masters of the wardrobe, were five in
number: the Marquis de Boisgelin, the Count de Pradel, the Count
Curial, the Marquis d'Avaray, the Duke d'Avaray. There were
besides thirty-two gentlemen of the chamber, without counting
those that were honorary. To this same service belonged the
readers, the first valets-de-chambre, the ushers of the chamber,
the musicians of the chamber, those of the chapel and the service
of the faculty. The entrees, a matter so important in the
ceremonies of courts, were also attached to this service.

By virtue of royal regulations of November 1st, December 31st,
1820, and January 23d, 1821, the entrees at the Chateau of the
Tuileries were established as follows: They were divided in six
classes: the grand entrees, the first entrees of the Cabinet, the
entrees of the Cabinet, those of the Hall of the Throne, those of
the first salon preceding the Hall of the Throne, and last, those
of the second salon.

The grand entrees gave the privilege of entering at any time the
sleeping-room of the King. They belonged to the Grand Chamberlain,
to the first chamberlains--masters of the wardrobe. Next came the
first entrees of the Cabinet (this was the name of the hall which,
during the reign of Napoleon III., was designated as the Salon de
Louis XIV., because it contained a Gobelins tapestry representing
the Ambassadors of Spain received by the King). Persons who have
the first entrees of the Cabinet have the right to enter there at
any time in order to have themselves announced to the King, and
there to await permission to enter the main apartment. These first
entrees of the Cabinet belong to those who have to take the orders
of the sovereign--to the grand officers of his civil and military
households, or, in their absence, to the first officer of each
service, to the major-general of the royal guard on service, to
the Grand Chancellor, to the minister-secretaries of State, to
the Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor, to the captains of
the King's bodyguard, to the Grand Quartermaster.

Next come the entrees of the Cabinet (which must not be confused
with the first entrees of the Cabinet). These give to persons
enjoying them the right to enter that room usually a little before
the hour fixed by the King to hear Mass, and to remain there at
will during the day, up to the hour of the evening when the
sovereign gives out the watchword. They belong to the grand
officers and to the first officers of the civil and military
households of the King, to the major-generals of the royal guard
and the lieutenant-general in service, to the cardinals, to the
Chancellor of France, to the minister-secretaries of State, to the
Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor, to the marshals of
France, to the Grand Referendary of the Chamber of Peers, to the
President of the Chamber of Deputies, and to all the officers of
the King's household on service.

The persons and functionaries civil or military with a lower rank
in the hierarchy of the court have their entrees, some to the Hall
of the Throne, others to the first salon preceding the Hall of the
Throne (the Salon d'Apollon under Napoleon III.), and still others
to the second salon (communicating with the Hall of the Marshals,
and called, under Napoleon III., the Salon of the First Consul).

The collective audience given to all having their entries was
called the public audience of the King. It took place when the
King went to hear Mass in his chapel, only on his return to re-
enter his inner apartment. Followed by all his grand officers and
his first officers in service, Charles X. passed to and paused in
each of the rooms in his outer apartment, in order to allow those
having the right to be there to pay their court to him. When he
attended Mass in his inner apartment, he gave a public audience
only after that ceremony. He paused in his Grand Cabinet, then in
the Hall of the Throne, and successively in the other rooms.

When the King was ready to receive, the First Gentleman of the
Chamber gave notice to the grand officers and the first officers
that they might present themselves. Moreover, he placed before the
King the list of persons having entrees to his apartments or to
whom he had accorded them. On this list Charles X. indicated those
he wished invited.

There was no titular Grand Equerry of France. The First Equerry,
charged with the saddle-horses of the King, was the Duke of
Polignac, major-general. The two equerries-commandant were the
Marquis of Vernon and Count O'Hegerthy, major-general. There
were, besides, four equerries, masters of the horse, three each
quarter, namely: for the January quarter the Chevalier de Riviere,
major-general; the Count Defrance, lieutenant-general; the Baron
Dujon, major-general;--for the April quarter, the Colonel Viscount
de Bongars; the Baron Vincent, major-general; the Viscount Domon,
lieutenant--general;--for the July quarter, the Colonel Marquis
de Martel, the Viscount Vansay, the Count Frederic de Bongars;--
for the October quarter, the Count de Fezensac, major-general; the
Colonel Marquis Oudinot, the Colonel Marquis de Chabannes. The
chief Equerries of the stable were the Viscount d'Abzac and the
Chevalier d'Abzac, both colonels. There were, besides, the
equerries in ordinary and the pupil-equerries. The pages belonged
to the service of the Grand Equerry of France.

The Grand Huntsman was the Marshal Marquis of Lauriston, and the
First Huntsman, the Lieutenant-General Count de Girardin. There
were also huntsmen for the hunting-courses and huntsmen for the
gunning-hunts of the King.

The Grand Master of Ceremonies was the Marquis of Dreux-Breze, and
the Master of Ceremonies the Marquis of Rochemore, major-general.
There were, besides, the aides, a king-at-arms and heralds-at-
arms.

All the civil household of the King worked with the greatest
regularity. Etiquette, carefully observed, though stripped of the
ancient minutiae, recalled the old usages of the French monarchy.
All that had been suppressed was what was puerile and weariness
for the courtiers and for the King himself.

The military household of the King was a group of chosen troops.
The horse body-guards comprised five companies, each bearing the
name of its chief. The Duke d'Havre et de Croy, the Duke of
Gramont, the Prince of Poix, Duke de Mouchy, the Duke of
Luxembourg, the Marquis de Riviere. The chiefs of these companies,
all five lieutenants-general, were entitled captains of the guard.
There was, besides, a company of foot-guards in ordinary to the
King, whose chief, the Duke of Mortemart, major-general, had the
title of captain-colonel, and whose officers were some French,
some Swiss. There was a Chief Quartermaster, the Lieutenant-
General Marquis de La Suze.

The royal guard, composed of two divisions of infantry, two
divisions of cavalry, and a regiment of artillery, was under the
command of four marshals of France, Victor, Duke de Bellune;

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