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List Of Contents | Contents of An Introduction to Chemical Science
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two causes O to come off from KClO3 at a lower temperature than
if alone. It is not known that Mn02 suffers any change.

Each molecule of potassium chlorate undergoes the following
change:--


Potassium Chlorate = Potassium Chloride + Oxygen
KClO3              =	KCl	        + 3 O.


Is this analysis or synthesis? Complete the equation, by using
weights, and explain it. Notice whether the right- hand member of
the equation has the same number of atoms as the left. Has
anything been lost or gained? What element has heat separated?
Does the experiment show whether O is very soluble in water? How
many grams of O are obtainable from 122.58 g. KCIO3? PROPERTIES.

23. Combustion of Carbon.

OXYGEN Experiment 14.--Examine the gas in one of the receivers.
Put a lighted splinter into the receiver, sliding along the glass
cover. Remove it, blow it out, and put in again while glowing. Is
it re-kindled? Repeat till it will no longer burn. Is the gas a
supporter of combustion? How did the combustion compare with that
in air? Is it probable that air is pure O? Why did the flame at
last go out? Has the O been destroyed, or chemically united with
something else?

Wood is in part C. CO2 is formed by the combustion; name it. The
equation is C + 2O = CO2. Affix the names and weights. Is CO2 a
supporter of combustion? Note that when C is burned with plenty
of O, CO2 is always formed, and that no matter how great the
conflagration, the union is atom by atom. Combustion, as here
shown, is only a rapid union of O with some other substance, as C
or H.

24. Combustion of Sulphur.

Experiment 15.--Hollow out one end of a piece of electric-light
pencil, or of crayon, 3 cm. long, and attach it to a Cu wire
(Fig. 9). Put into this a piece of S as large as a pea, ignite it
by holding in the flame, and then hold it in a receiver of O.
Note the color and brightness of the flame, and compare with the
same in the air. Also note the color and odor of the product. The
new gas is SO2. Name it, and write the equation for its
production from S and O. How do you almost daily perform a
similar experiment? Is the product a supporter of combustion?

25. Combustion of Phosphorus.

Experiment 16.--With forceps, which should always be used in
handling this element, put a bit of P, half as large as the S
above,into the crayon, called a deflagrating-spoon. Heat another
wire, touch it to the P, and at once lower the latter into a
receiver of O. Notice the combustion, the color of the flame and
of the product. After removing, be sure to burn every bit of P by
holding it in a flame, as it is liable to take fire if left. The
product of the combustion is a union of what two elements? Is it
an oxide? Its symbol is P2O5. Write the equation, using symbols,
names, and weights. Towards the close of the experiment, when the
O is nearly all combined, P2O3 is formed, as it is also when P
oxidizes at a low temperature. Name it and write the equation.

26. Combustion of Iron.

Experiment 17.--Take in the forceps a piece of iron picture-cord
wire 6 or 8cm long, hold one end in the flame for an instant,
then dip it into some S. Enough S will adhere to be set on fire
by holding it in the flame again. Then at once dip it into a
receiver of O with a little water in the bottom. The iron will
burn with scintillations. Is this analysis or synthesis? What
elements combine? A watch-spring, heated to take out the temper,
may be used, but picture-wire is better.

The product is Fe3O4. Write the equation. How much Fe by weight
in the formula? How much O? What per cent by weight of Fe in the
compound? Multiply the fractional part by 100. What per cent of
0? Whatper cent of C0 .is C? O2? Find the percentage composition
of SO2. P2O5.

From the last five experiments what do you infer of the tendency
of O to unite with other elements?

27. Oxygen is a Gas without Color, Odor, or Taste.

It is chemically a very active element; that is, it unites with
almost everything. Fluorine is the only element with which it
will not combine. When oxygen combines with a single element,
what is the compound called? We have found that O makes up a
certain portion of the air; later, we shall see how large the
proportion is. Its tendency to combine with almost everything is
a reason for the decay, rust, and oxidation of so many
substances, and for conflagrations, great and small. New
compounds are thusformed, of which O constitutes one factor.
Water, H2O, is only a chemical union of O and H. Iron rust, Fe2O3
and H2O, is composed of O, Fe, and water. The burning of wood or
of coal gives rise to carbon dioxide, CO2, and water. Decay of
animal and vegetable matter is hastened by this all-pervading
element. O forms a portion of all animal and vegetable matter, of
almost all rocks and minerals, and of water. It is the most
abundant of all elements, and makes up from one-half to two-
thirds of the earth's surface. Compute the proportion of it, by
weight, in water, H2O. It is the union of O in the air with C and
H in our blood that keeps up the heat of the body and supports
life. See page 81.

There are many ways of preparing this element besides the one
given above. It may be obtained from water (Experiment 38) and
from many other compounds, e.g. by heating mercury oxide,
HgO.

CHAPTER VII.

NITROGEN.

28. Separation.

Experiment 18.--Fasten a piece of electric-light pencil, or of
crayon, to a wire, as in Experiment 15, and bend the wire so it
will reach half-way to the bottom of a receiver. Using forceps,
put into the crayon a small piece of phosphorus. Pass the wire up
through the orifice in the shelf of a p.t. (pneumatic trough),
having water at least l cm. above the shelf. Heat another wire,
touch it to the P, and quickly invert an empty receiver over the
P, having the mouth under water, so as to admit no air (Fig. 10).
Let the P burn as long as it will, then remove the wire and the
crayon, letting in no air. Note the color of the product, and
leave till it is tolerably clear, then remove the receiver with a
glass plate, leaving the water in the bottom.

Do the fumes resemble those of Experiment 16? Does it seem likely
(Fig 10.) that part of the air is O? Why a part only? Find what
proportion of the receiver is filled with water by measuring the
water with a graduate; then fill it with water and measure that;
compute the percentage which the former is of the latter. What
proportion of the air, then, is O? What was the only means of
escape for the P2O6, and P2O2 formed? These products are solids.
Are they soluble in water? Compute the percentage composition,
always by weight, of P2O2 and P2O5.

The gas left in the receiver is evidently not O. Experiment 19
will prove this conclusively, and show the properties of the new
gas.

29. Properties.

Experiment 19.--When the white cloud has disappeared, slide the
plate along, and insert a burning stick; try one that still
glows.

See whether the P and S on the end of a match will burn. Is the
gas a supporter of combustion?  Since it does not unite with C,
S, or P, is it an active or a passive element?  Compare it with
O. Air is about 14 1/2 times as heavy as H. Which is heavier, air
or N?  See page 12. Air or O?

Write out the chief properties, physical and chemical, of N, as
found in this experiment.

30. Inactivity of N.--N will scarcely unite chemically except on
being set free from compounds. It has, however, an intense
affinity for boron, and will even go through a carbon crucible to
unite with it. It is not combined with O in the air; but the two
form a mixture (page 86), of which N makes up four-fifths, its
use being to dilute the O. What would be the effect, in case of a
fire, if air were pure O?  What effect on the human system?

Growing plants need a great deal of N, but they are incapable of
making use of that in the air, on account of the chemical
inactivity of the element. Their supply comes from compounds in
earth, water, and air. By reason of its inertness N is very
easily set free from its compounds. For this reason it is a
constituent of most explosives, as gunpowder, nitro-glycerine,
dynamite, etc. These solids, by heat or concussion, are suddenly
changed to gases, which thereby occupy much more space, causing
an explosion.

Nitrogen exists in many compounds, such as the nitrates; but the
great source of it all is the atmosphere. See page 85.

CHAPTER VIII.

HYDROGEN.

31. Preparation.

Experiment 20.--Prepare apparatus as for making O. Be sure that
the cork perfectly fits both d.t. and t.t., or the H will escape.
Cover 5 g. granulated Zn, in the t.t., with 10 cc. H2O, and add 5
cc. chlorhydric acid, HCl. Adjust as for O (Fig. 7), except that
no heat is to be applied. If the action is not brisk enough, add
more HCl. Collect several receivers of the gas over water, adding
small quantities of HCl when necessary. Observe the black
floating residuum; it is carbon, lead, etc. With a glass plate
remove the receivers, keeping them inverted (Fig. 11), or the H
will escape.

32. The Chemical Change is as follows:--

Zinc + hydrogen chloride = zinc chloride + hydrogen.

Zn + 2 HCl = ZnCl2 + 2H.

Complete by adding the weights, and explain. Notice that the
water does not take part in the change; it is added to dissolve
the ZnCl2 formed, and thus keep it from coating the Zn and
preventing further action of the acid. Note also that Zn has
simply changed places with H, one atom of the former having
driven off two atoms of the latter. The H, having nothing to
unite with, is set free as a gas, and collected over water. Of
course Zn must have a stronger chemical affinity for Cl than H
has, or the change could not have taken place. Why one Zn atom
replaces two H atoms will be explained later, asfar as an
explanation is possible. This equation, should be studied
carefully, as a type of all equations. The left-hand member shows
what were taken, i.e. the factors; the right-hand shows what were
obtained, i.e. the products. H2SO4 might have been used instead
of HCl. In that case the reaction, or equation, would have been:

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